Timeline of Indian History

  • 2800 BC Indus Valley Civilization begins in the northwestern region of India
  • 2600 BC Mohenjo-daro and Harappa phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins, in Punjab and Sindh. Other cities like Lothal, Mehrgarh also emerged during this period.
  • 1600 BC India is invaded by the Aryans from the westGautam Budha
  • 1400 BC The Vedas, the Hindu scripture, was written
  • 600 BC The Upanishads written
  •   599 BC Mahavira, 24th Tirthankar of Jainism is born
  • 563 BC Gautam Buddha, founder of Buddhism is born in Lumbini
  • 527 BC Nirvana of Mahavira
  • 492 BC Bimbisara dies and is succeeded by Ajatashatru in Magadha Empire
  • 483 BC Death of Gautama Buddha in Kushinagar
  • 326 BC Alexander the Great moved into India, King Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
  •   321 BC Chandragupta Maurya established Mauryan dynasty defeating Dhana Nanda
  • 305 BC Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
  • 300 BC Chola dynasty establishes his kingdom over southern India with capital in Thanjavur
  • 269 BC Ashoka the Great, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, becomes the emperor of India
  • 261 BC Kalinga War takes place between Magadha Empire and the kingdom of Kalinga.
  • 232 BC Death of King Ashoka
  • 185 BC The Mauryan Empire, collapsed after its emperor Brihadrata was assassinated by his general Pusyamitra Sunga who then established the Sunga dynasty
  • 50 AD Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises, first Buddhist stupa is constructed at Sanchi
  • 300 The Pallava dynasty is established in Kanchi
  • 320 The Gupta dynasty founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta, reunited northern India initiating the "golden Age" of India
  • 335 King Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
  • 380 Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
  • 450 Invasions by the Huna.
  • 606 Harshavardhana crowned Monarch.
  • 712 First Muslim, Md. Bin Qasim defeats Raja Dahir
  • 1021 Mahmud Ghazni defeats Tarnochalpal and annexes Punjab Guru Nanak
  • 1206 Qutb ub-din Aybak establishes the Delhi Sultanate
  • 1221 Genghis Khan invades Punjab
  • 1236 Razia Sultana, only lady ruler of Delhi
  • 1290 Jalal ud-Din Firuz establishes the Khilji sultanate at Delhi
  • 1298 Marco Polo visits India
  • 1336 Vijayanagara Empire established by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I
  • 1398 Timur conquered India resulting in the decline of the Delhi Sultanate
  • 1469 Birth of Guru Nanak Dev
  • 1497 Vasco de Gama's first voyage from Europe to India and back (to 1499)
  • 1526 Babur established the Mughal Empire
  • 1555 Mughal king Humayun comes to fight Sher Shah and regains India
  • 1556 Humayun dies, and is succeeded by Akbar
  • 1600 Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the East India Company established trading posts in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras
  • 1612 British arrives India
  • 1632 Taj Mahal construction initiated by Mughal ruler Shah Jahan
  • 1605 Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jehangir.
  • 1653 Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan dies, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
  •   1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is executed in Delhi. Guru Gobind Singh becomes tenth Guru of Sikhs.
  • 1680 Shivaji dies at Raigad, Sambhaji became 2nd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
  • 1707 Death of Aurangzeb the Mughal emperor.
  • 1757 In Battle of Plassey, Robert Clive, leads British forces which defeated the Mughal governor of Bengal Mir Jafar
  • 1774 Warren Hastings appointed the first governor general of India by the East India Company
  • 1775 First Anglo-Maratha War
  • 1799 Death of Tipu Sultan
  • 1853 Started Post Service
  • 1853 First Railway established between Bombay and Thane
  • 1857 Indian Mutiny Rebellion of 1857(10th May)
  • 1857 Establishment of University of Mumbai, University of Madras and University of Calcutta in India
  • 1858 The British government ruled India, Lord Dalhousie becomes the Governor-General of India
  • 1862 Death of Bahadur Shah Zafar
  • 1869 "Arya Samaj" Established
  • 1876 Queen Victoria was given the title Empress of India by the British Parliament 1885 Burma became an Indian province
  • 1885 The Indian National Congress was formed (28th December)
  • 1905 The British government divided Bengal into separate Hindu and Muslim sections 1909 Morley-Minto Reforms
  • 1914 World War 1
  • 1915 Mahatma Gandhi returns back to India
  • 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13th April)
  • 1920 Mahatma Gandhi became president of Indian National Congress, Non-cooperation movement Khilafat Movement
  • 1927 Simon Commission
  • 1929 Central Assembly Bombed by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
  • 1930 Purna Swaraj resolution in Lahore, Salt Satyagraha startedMahatma Gandhi
  • 1931 Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev Martyred (23rd March)
  • 1935 Government of India Act
  • 1939 World War 2 began
  • 1940 Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded that a new country be formed from India for the Muslims, which would be called Pakistan
  • 1942 Quit India Movement
  • 1942 Indian National Army Established by Subhas Chandra Bose
  • 1945 World War II ended when United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August)
  • 1946 Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
  • 1946 The British government agreed to grant India independence
  • 1947 British and Indian leaders agreed to divide the country into India and Pakistan
  • 1947 India became independent (15th August)
  • 1948 Mahatma Gandhi assassinated Nathuram Godse (30th January)
  • 1950 Constitution of India came into effect and Jawaharlal Nehru became the Indian first prime minister (26th January)